AI and Human Resources

Spearheading HR Transformation

The integration of AI and human resources services marks a significant shift in the landscape of workforce management and organizational development. As AI technologies like machine learning and natural language processing become more sophisticated, their applications within HR are expanding, offering unprecedented opportunities for efficiency, personalization, and strategic decision-making.

However, this integration also brings forth challenges and ethical considerations, particularly in balancing technological advancements with the human-centric nature of HR. This evolving synergy between AI and HR is reshaping roles, enhancing capabilities, and redefining the future of workplace management.

As you continue reading, you will learn more about how AI can improve HR operations. In particular you will read:

  • AI’s Role in HR: Automation of administrative tasks, talent acquisition, employee engagement, and performance analysis.
  • Future of AI in HR: Predictive analytics in workforce planning and personalized employee experiences.
  • Human Element in HR: Emotional intelligence, empathy, and the limitations of AI.
  • Ethical and Practical Considerations: Transparency, accountability, and balancing automation with human interaction.
  • Preparing HR for AI: Training for HR professionals and developing an AI-ready culture in the workplace.

The collaboration of AI and human resources is quite challenging. That’s why I recommend AI Governance Manager Course with which to learn methods and practices for developing and managing AI and HR technologies.

How AI Can Help Human Resources

Automation of Administrative Tasks

How can AI and human resources aid one another? As we delve into the role of machine learning in transforming the workforce, one of the most significant impacts is seen in the automation of administrative tasks.

Knowledge engineering, with its advanced algorithms and machine learning capabilities, has revolutionized the way manpower departments handle routine and time-consuming tasks. From processing employee information to managing payroll and benefits, neural network systems are now capable of executing these functions with remarkable efficiency and accuracy.

This automation not only streamlines manpower operations but also allows hiring professionals to focus on more strategic aspects of their role, such as employee engagement and talent management. The use of intelligent retrieval in automating administrative tasks is a prime example of labor force transformation, where technology is leveraged to enhance the effectiveness of human capital assets’ functions.

So, how is AI used in human resources?

  • Automated HR Queries: AI-powered chatbots and virtual assistants can efficiently handle routine HR inquiries, significantly reducing the administrative burden on HR staff. These intelligent systems provide quick and accurate responses to common queries, freeing up valuable time for HR professionals to address more complex issues.
  • Document Management and Compliance: AI systems can manage, organize, and maintain HR documents, ensuring they are up-to-date and compliant with legal  and organizational policies. This not only improves efficiency but also reduces the risk of non-compliance, which can have significant legal and financial implications.

Among AI in hr examples, the integration of Artificial Intelligence into these administrative tasks represents a significant shift in how human resources departments operate, moving from manual, labor-intensive processes to more streamlined, automated, and strategic functions.

example of ai and human resources

Talent Acquisition and Recruitment

Moving to talent acquisition and recruitment, the influence of expert systems is profoundly reshaping this critical manpower function. Neural network-driven tools and platforms are now being used to streamline the entire recruitment process, from sourcing candidates to screening resumes and even conducting initial interviews.

Machine learning algorithms are particularly useful in parsing vast amounts of data from resumes and job applications, helping to identify the most suitable candidates efficiently. This not only speeds up the recruitment process but also enhances its effectiveness by reducing biases and improving the quality of hires.

So if you’re wondering will HR ever be automated, the answer is yes through:

  • Automated Resume Screening: AI algorithms can process large volumes of resumes, identifying the most suitable candidates based on predefined criteria. This ensures a more objective and efficient selection process, significantly reducing the time and resources spent on manual screening.
  • Enhanced Candidate Matching: AI can accurately match candidates’ skills and experiences with job requirements. This leads to better job placements and improved hiring quality, as the system can identify the most promising candidates who are likely to succeed in the specific roles they apply for.

Furthermore, AI’s role in recruitment extends to improving candidate experience, a crucial factor in today’s competitive job market. By automating responses and providing timely updates, natural language processing tools ensure a more engaging and responsive interaction with potential employees.

The integration of AI in talent acquisition and recruitment is a clear testament to how AI and human resources are inextricably linked together: neural networks are not just operational tools but strategic assets in the realm of human resources.

Employee Engagement and Performance Analysis

In the realm of Human Resources (HR), neural network technology is playing a pivotal role in enhancing employee engagement and revolutionizing performance analysis. AI-driven HR analytics are now being utilized to gain deeper insights into employee behaviors, preferences, and performance patterns.

This data-driven approach allows hiring professionals to tailor engagement strategies more effectively, ensuring that initiatives resonate with the workforce. But how does this take place?

  • Predictive Attrition Modeling: AI tools can predict which employees are at risk of leaving the organization. This allows HR to proactively address retention issues by identifying patterns and factors that contribute to employee turnover. By intervening early, HR can implement strategies to improve employee satisfaction and retention.
  • Data-Driven Performance Reviews: AI can aggregate various performance metrics, providing a more objective basis for performance reviews and employee assessments. This approach ensures that performance evaluations are based on comprehensive data, reducing biases and enhancing the fairness of the review process.

Moreover, AI’s capabilities in Natural Language Processing (NLP) are being leveraged to analyze feedback from employee surveys, providing a more nuanced understanding of employee sentiment. This is crucial in fostering a workplace environment that values diversity and inclusion, as machine learning helps identify areas needing attention or improvement.

In addition, the future is expected to bring even more sophisticated tools for real-time performance monitoring and analysis, enabling organizations to respond quickly to changing dynamics and maintain a highly engaged and productive workforce.

Training and Development Programs

The integration of neural network technology in training and development programs is a transformative aspect of human resource management. Indeed, artificial intelligence with human resources is acting to adapt to their individual learning styles and career aspirations through:

  • Customized Training Programs: AI can assess individual learning styles and skill gaps to create tailored training programs. This enhances the effectiveness of professional development by ensuring that each employee receives training that is most relevant and beneficial to their unique needs and career goals.
  • Career Pathing: AI can suggest potential career paths and necessary skills development, aiding employees in their career progression and growth. This not only helps employees to visualize their future within the company but also aligns their personal development with the organization’s needs.

This personalized approach is particularly evident in the use of AI software for human resources, which can curate and recommend learning materials based on an employee’s past performance, current role and future potential.

In addition, generative AI in HR is beginning to play a role in creating personalized training content, adapting to the evolving needs of the workforce. This approach not only enhances the learning experience, but also aligns skill development with the strategic goals of the organization.

Finally, in human resource management, it is clear that the role of AI in training and development is not only about efficiency, but also about creating a more dynamic, responsive, and growth-oriented work environment.

Workforce Planning and Management

The integration of AI and human resources systems has revolutionized workforce planning and management. AI’s predictive analytics and data-driven insights enable HR professionals to make more informed decisions about talent acquisition, workforce optimization, and future planning.

This technological advance raises a question: will human resources be automated? Although machine learning significantly simplifies many processes, the strategic and human aspects of HR still require a human touch. So, is AI taking over HR?

  • Predictive Analytics in Workforce Planning: AI can analyze historical hiring data and workforce trends to predict future staffing needs. This aids in strategic workforce planning, allowing HR to proactively address potential talent gaps and ensure the organization is well-equipped for future challenges.
  • Strategic Insights for Organizational Development: AI-driven analytics can provide valuable insights into workforce dynamics. These insights help HR to make informed decisions about talent management and organizational growth, ensuring that the workforce evolves in alignment with the company’s strategic objectives.

In the context of DEI (Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion) and HR, AI plays a crucial role in eliminating biases and promoting a diverse and inclusive workplace. By leveraging machine learning, HR can ensure that recruitment and management practices are fair and equitable, aligning with the organization’s DEI goals.

Moreover, the role of Quality Assurance in Human Resources becomes increasingly important as AI systems are deployed. It is essential to regularly audit and review AI tools to ensure they function as intended and adhere to ethical standards. This is where the synergy between AI and human resources is most evident – AI provides the tools for efficiency and effectiveness, while human oversight ensures these tools are used ethically and responsibly.

Virtual Employee Assistance

The advent of Virtual Assistant Human Resources technology marks a significant milestone in the HR field. These AI-driven assistants can handle a range of tasks, from answering employee queries to assisting with recruiting processes, thereby enhancing the efficiency and responsiveness of HR departments. Referring to employees, AI in internal communications is used to increase their involvement and satisfaction within companies.

So if you are wondering will chatbots replace HR jobs the answer is no as virtual assistants offer:

  • Personalized Employee Experiences: AI can provide personalized recommendations for career development, training, and wellness, enhancing the overall employee experience. These virtual assistants are tailored to understand and respond to individual employee needs, making each interaction more relevant and beneficial.
  • Automated Feedback and Surveys: AI-driven tools can conduct regular employee surveys, offering real-time insights into employee satisfaction and engagement levels. This continuous feedback loop allows HR to stay connected with employee sentiments and quickly address any concerns or areas for improvement.

The use of machine learning in this capacity is not just about automation; it’s about providing a more engaging and interactive experience for employees. Virtual assistants can offer personalized support, answer frequently asked questions, and guide employees through various HR processes, making the HR experience more accessible and user-friendly.

In this digital era, the combination of AI and human resources in the form of virtual assistants is a testament to how technology can enhance the human aspects of HR. These AI tools support the HR team, allowing them to focus on more strategic tasks and human interactions, thereby striking a balance between technological efficiency and the human element that is at the heart of human resources.

AI’s Impact on HR Jobs

The integration of AI and human resources functions is leading to a significant reshaping of HR roles. With AI handling routine tasks, HR professionals are now free to focus on more strategic initiatives. This shift is not about replacing human roles but rather enhancing them, allowing HR professionals to engage in more meaningful and impactful work.

As AI becomes more prevalent in HR, there is a growing need for HR professionals to develop new skills. This includes understanding and leveraging AI tools, data analytics, and machine learning insights.

HR professionals must become adept at interpreting AI-generated data and using it to make strategic decisions. Continuous learning and adaptation are key, as the landscape of HR technology is ever-evolving. Training in AI applications specific to human resources, developing data literacy, and honing strategic decision-making skills are essential for modern HR professionals.

AI is enabling a shift in HR from operational to strategic focus. With AI handling administrative tasks, HR professionals can now concentrate on areas like talent strategy, workforce planning, and organizational development.

This shift is crucial for businesses to remain competitive in a rapidly changing world. Strategic workforce planning, enhancing employee experience, and focusing on organizational development are now key areas where HR professionals can make a significant impact, thanks to the support of AI tools.

examples of ai and human resource

Benefits of AI in HR

One of the most significant benefits of integrating AI and human resources is the enhanced efficiency and accuracy it brings to various HR processes. AI’s ability to automate routine tasks, analyze large datasets, and provide precise insights is transforming the workforce landscape.

  • Automation of Routine Tasks: intelligent retrieval excels in handling repetitive and time-consuming tasks such as sorting through resumes, scheduling interviews, and managing employee data. This automation not only speeds up these processes but also reduces the likelihood of human error. For instance, machine learning-powered applicant tracking systems can quickly scan through hundreds of resumes, identifying the most suitable candidates based on predefined criteria. This level of efficiency is difficult to achieve manually and allows HR professionals to focus on more strategic aspects of their role.
  • Data-Driven Decision Making: natural language processing’s capacity to analyze vast amounts of data with speed and accuracy is invaluable in hireling decision-making. Manpower analytics powered by machine learning can provide deep insights into workforce trends, employee performance, and engagement levels. These insights are crucial for making informed decisions about talent management, workforce planning, and HR policies. For example, konwledge engineering can predict employee turnover, helping human capital assets to proactively address retention challenges.
  • Improved Accuracy in HR Processes: Neural network algorithms, when properly trained and implemented, offer a high degree of accuracy in their outputs. This accuracy is particularly beneficial in areas like payroll processing, benefits administration, and compliance reporting. Machine learning systems can quickly identify discrepancies or errors, ensuring that labour force operations are accurate and comply with legal standards.
  • Personalized Employee Experiences: Natural language pprocessing also enables more personalized experiences for employees. From customized learning and development programs to tailored benefits packages, neural networks can analyze individual employee data to provide recommendations that suit their unique needs and preferences. This personalization not only enhances employee satisfaction but also contributes to their professional growth and engagement with the company.
  • Reducing Biases in Hiring: machine learning can also bypass human biases an a certain extent. Natural language processing driven analysis can help AI and human resources to sort a candidate, reducing judgmental biases, in favor of a more objective analysis

In summary, beneficial integration of AI and human resources results in significant improvements in efficiency and accuracy. By automating routine tasks, providing data-driven insights, and personalizing employee experiences, machine learning is enabling HR departments to be more effective and strategic in their operations. This shift not only benefits the staff team but also enhances the overall employee experience, contributing to a more productive and engaged workforce.

The Human Element in AI and human resources’ Limitations

Although the advantages of AI and human resources are many, it’s crucial to recognize the limitations of technology and the irreplaceable value of the human element. AI, for all its efficiency and data-processing capabilities, lacks the emotional intelligence and empathy that are core to human resources. Human judgment plays a critical role in understanding the nuances of employee behavior, morale, and workplace dynamics, areas where AI can provide data but not contextual understanding.

Emotional intelligence is particularly vital in HR, as it involves understanding and managing emotions, both of oneself and others. This is essential in areas like conflict resolution, employee counseling, and fostering a positive workplace culture. Artificial intelligence can aid in these processes by providing data-driven insights, but the human touch is essential for interpreting and acting on these insights in a compassionate and empathetic manner.

Moreover, ethical considerations and decision-making in HR cannot be entirely outsourced to AI. While this tecnology can help in making data-driven decisions, the ethical implications of these decisions – such as fairness, privacy, and bias – require human judgment. HR professionals must oversee AI systems to ensure they align with ethical standards and organizational values.

The balance between AI and human judgment is another critical aspect. While AI can handle a range of tasks, from recruitment to performance analysis, the final decisions should often be made by humans. This is especially true in sensitive areas like layoffs, promotions, and handling workplace grievances. AI can provide recommendations, but the human perspective is essential for considering the broader implications and maintaining a humane approach.

In summary, while AI is a powerful tool for enhancing HR functions, it cannot replace the human element. Emotional intelligence, empathy, ethical decision-making, and the balance of AI and human judgment are key areas where the human touch remains paramount. As AI continues to evolve and integrate into HR, maintaining this balance will be crucial for its effective and ethical management.

Challenges and Disadvantages of AI in HR

Thus, understanding how generative AI and human resources work together is important. One aspect that should not be underestimated, however, is that this combination presents several challenges and drawbacks that organizations need to address carefully.

  1. Algorithmic Bias and Discrimination: one of the most significant challenges in using AI in HR is the risk of algorithmic bias. AI systems are only as unbiased as the data they are trained on. If the training data contains biases, the AI’s decision-making can inadvertently perpetuate and even amplify these biases, leading to discrimination in hiring, promotions, and other HR processes.
  2. Privacy and Data Security Concerns: the use of AI and human resources involves handling large amounts of sensitive employee data. This raises concerns about data privacy and security. Ensuring that employee data is protected and that AI systems comply with data protection regulations like GDPR is a significant challenge for HR departments.
  3. Lack of Human Touch: this technology can automate many human resources tasks, but it lacks the emotional intelligence and empathy that human HR professionals bring to the table. This can be particularly problematic in areas like employee counseling, conflict resolution, and understanding the nuanced needs of employees.
  4. Over-reliance on Technology: there’s a risk of becoming overly reliant on AI for HR decisions. While its can provide valuable insights, it should not replace human judgment. Balancing AI recommendations with human intuition and experience is crucial.
  5. Resistance to Change and Employee Trust: implementing AI in HR can meet resistance from both HR professionals and employees. There can be mistrust towards AI-driven decisions and fear of job loss due to automation. Managing this change, addressing concerns, and building trust are significant challenges.
  6. Complexity and Cost of Implementation: developing, implementing, and maintaining AI systems can be complex and costly. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) may find it particularly challenging to allocate resources for such technologies.
  7. Keeping Pace with Rapid Technological Changes: the field of AI is evolving rapidly. Keeping up with these changes, continuously updating AI systems, and ensuring that HR staff are trained to use these technologies can be challenging for organizations.
  8. Ethical and Legal Implications: the use of AI in HR raises ethical questions, such as the extent to which AI should be involved in decision-making processes. Additionally, there are legal implications, especially around issues like wrongful termination or discrimination, where AI-driven decisions could be implicated.
  9. Depersonalization of HR Processes: while AI can streamline HR processes, there’s a risk of depersonalizing these processes. HR is fundamentally about people, and over-automation can lead to a loss of personal touch in employee interactions.
  10. Managing Employee Perceptions and Expectations: employees might have concerns about AI monitoring their performance or being used to make decisions about their careers. Addressing these perceptions and managing expectations is crucial for the successful adoption of AI in HR.

In summary, although the partnership of AI and human resources offers transformational potential for this sector, it is essential to approach its integration with a clear understanding of these challenges. Balancing the benefits of AI with an approach that is aware of its limitations and potential pitfalls will be key to its successful adoption in HR.

disadvantages of ai and human resources

What is the future of AI in HR?

The future of AI and human resources is poised to be a transformative journey, reshaping how HR functions and interacts with employees. As we look ahead, several key trends and developments stand out:

  1. Enhanced Decision-Making with Predictive Analytics: this technolgy is expected to significantly advance in predictive analytics, enabling HR professionals to make more informed decisions. By analyzing patterns and trends in large datasets, artificial intelligence can forecast future workforce needs, predict employee turnover, and assist in succession planning. This predictive capability will allow HR to be more proactive rather than reactive.
  2. Personalized Employee Experiences: AI will play a crucial role in personalizing the employee experience. From tailored training programs to customized career development plans, AI’s ability to analyze individual employee data will enable human resources to meet the unique needs and aspirations of each employee, enhancing job satisfaction and retention.
  3. Automation of Routine Tasks: the automation of administrative HR tasks will continue to evolve. AI-driven systems will handle tasks like payroll processing, benefits administration, and compliance management more efficiently, freeing up HR professionals to focus on more strategic initiatives.
  4. Revolutionizing Talent Acquisition: AI will further refine the talent acquisition process. From automated screening of resumes to AI-powered interviews, these technologies will help in identifying the best candidates more accurately and efficiently, reducing biases and improving the quality of hires.
  5. AI in Employee Wellness and Engagement: future AI tools will likely focus more on employee wellness and engagement. By analyzing data on employee activities and feedback, its can help human resources’s departments develop more effective employee wellness programs and engagement strategies.
  6. Ethical AI and Bias Mitigation: as AI becomes more prevalent in HR, there will be an increased focus on ethical its practices. This includes developing AI systems that are transparent, accountable, and free from biases. HR departments will need to ensure that AI tools are used responsibly and ethically.
  7. Collaboration Between AI and HR Professionals: AI will not replace human resourses but will augment its capabilities. HR professionals will need to develop skills to work alongside AI, leveraging its strengths and adding the human touch that it cannot replicate.
  8. Data Security and Privacy: with the increased use of AI in HR, data security and privacy concerns will become more prominent. HR departments will need to ensure that employee data is handled securely and in compliance with privacy laws and regulations.
  9. Emergence of New HR Roles: the integration of AI into human resources will lead to the emergence of new roles and specializations within the field. Those that focus on strategy, data analysis, and ethical considerations will become increasingly important.
  10. Continuous Learning and Adaptation: finally, the future of AI and human resources will be characterized by continuous learning and adaptation. As AI technologies evolve, HR professionals will need to stay updated and adapt their strategies and practices accordingly.

In conclusion, the collaboration between AI and human resources is not only about technological advances, but also about how these technologies are integrated into the human aspect of this sector. It is about leveraging AI to improve efficiency, decision making, and employee experience while maintaining the human touch that is at the core of HR.

AI Tools and Applications in HR

The landscape of AI and human resources is rich and diverse, with a range of tools and applications designed to enhance various aspects of human resource management.

  • Recruitment and Talent Acquisition Tools: knowledge engineering-driven tools in recruitment are revolutionizing how companies attract and select candidates. These tools use machine learning algorithms to parse resumes, match job descriptions with suitable candidates, and even predict candidate success. Platforms like LinkedIn and Indeed integrate to streamline the recruitment process, making it more efficient and effective.
  • Chatbots and Virtual Assistants: natural language processing-powered chatbots and virtual assistants are increasingly being used in workforce for employee assistance and engagement. These tools can handle routine inquiries, provide instant responses to employee queries, and assist in onboarding processes. They enhance communication skills and free up HR professionals to focus on more complex tasks.
  • Performance Management Systems: natural language processing is being used to transform performance management by providing real-time feedback, personalized development plans, and predictive analytics on employee performance. These systems can analyze vast amounts of data to identify trends and provide insights for better decision-making.
  • Learning and Development Platforms: neural network-driven learning management systems (LMS) offer personalized attained experiences to employees. They adapt to individual “commit to memory” styles and needs, recommend courses, and track progress. This personalization helps in better skill development and knowledge retention.
  • Employee Engagement Tools: devices that measure and enhance employee engagement are increasingly machine learning-driven. They can analyze employee feedback, conduct sentiment analysis, and provide insights into workforce morale and engagement levels. This helps AI and human resources to proactively address issues and improve the overall work environment.
  • HR Analytics and Data-Driven Insights: advanced analytics tools powered by neural network are enabling hierling departments to make data-driven decisions. These devices can analyze patterns in employee data, predict turnover, identify talent gaps, and provide actionable insights for strategic HR planning.
  • Diversity and Inclusion Software: AI and human resources practices are also combine to promote diversity and inclusion in the workplace. They can help in removing biases from hiring processes, track diversity metrics, and suggest strategies to create a more inclusive work environment.

In summary, the current AI tools in HR are diverse and multifaceted, addressing various aspects of human capital assets from recruitment to employee engagement. These tools not only automate and streamline HR processes but also provide valuable insights and analytics, aiding in strategic decision-making and enhancing the overall effectiveness of HR functions.

Case Studies: AI Success Stories in HR

The roles of AI and human resources have led to numerous success stories, showing the transformative impact of this technology.

  1. IBM’s AI-Powered Workforce: IBM has leveraged artificial intelligence in its HR operations, particularly in talent acquisition and education. Their neural network driven system can predict with 95% accuracy which employees might be planning to leave, allowing proactive retention strategies. Additionally, their natural language processing powered learning platform personalizes training experiences for employees, enhancing skill development and career growth.
  2. Unilever’s Digital Hiring Process: Unilever revolutionized its recruitment process by incorporating knowledge engineering. The company uses online games to assess the inherent traits of candidates and machine learning powered video interviews to evaluate their expressions and body language. This approach has not only streamlined the hiring process but also helped in reducing biases, leading to a more diverse workforce.
  3. Accenture’s AI for Employee Experience: Accenture implemented an expert system driven “nudge” program, which uses data analytics to provide personalized suggestions to employees for career growth and learning opportunities. This initiative has led to increased employee engagement and satisfaction.


AI and human resources today has ushered in a new era of possibilities and opportunities. As we reflect on the transformative journey of AI and HR, it becomes evident that their synergy is reshaping how organizations manage their most valuable asset: their workforce.

The adoption of AI in HR is not merely a technological advancement but a strategic imperative. It marks a paradigm shift in how HR professionals operate, moving from traditional, administrative roles to strategic leaders who harness the power of AI-driven insights. This shift aligns with the broader transformation of HR from a support function to a vital contributor to an organization’s success.

One of the most promising aspects of AI and human resources is its potential to create a more personalized and engaging experience for employees. AI-driven tools can recommend tailored learning programs, provide career path guidance, and even enhance wellness initiatives. This personalization not only boosts employee satisfaction but also contributes to talent retention and organizational success.

Moreover, AI in HR has demonstrated its ability to minimize biases in hiring, enhance workforce diversity, and provide a more objective basis for performance assessments. By leveraging AI, organizations can create fairer and more inclusive workplaces, which align with the principles of Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion (DEI).

While the benefits of AI in human resources are significant, it is essential to acknowledge the challenges and ethical considerations that accompany this transformation. AI governance, transparency, and accountability are critical aspects that HR professionals must navigate. Balancing automation with human judgment and ensuring data privacy and security are vital components of responsible AI adoption.

As we embrace AI in HR, one thing remains clear: the future of HR is a synergistic one, where technology and human insights work hand in hand to drive organizational success. AI empowers HR professionals to make data-driven decisions, optimize workforce planning, and enhance the overall employee experience. However, it is the combination of AI’s capabilities with human empathy, emotional intelligence, and ethical stewardship that will define the future of HR.

In conclusion, the combination of AI and human resources represents an exciting journey filled with opportunities to transform the workplace, create more inclusive environments, and elevate the HR function to new heights. As AI and HR continue to evolve together, the synergy between technology and human expertise will define the future of HR, ultimately leading to more agile, responsive, and successful organizations.

Request information and give your workforce a boost

made with AI animate

Schedule a Free Consultation